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collocation

Date: Oct 16 2007

Topic: Vocabulary

Author: asso_flower

Lesson

 Hi friends,

I've read this lesson in an english website,so i copied it for you and me

Hoping that  it cab help you in your learning as well as me .

Looking forward to having your comments.

Asso_flower

What is a collocation? 

A collocation is two or more words that often go together. These combinations just sound "right" to native English speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound "wrong". Look at these examples:

Natural English... Unnatural English...
the fast train
fast food
the quick train
quick food
a quick shower
a quick meal
a fast shower
a fast meal

Why learn collocations?

  • Your language will be more natural and more easily understood.
  • You will have alternative and richer ways of expressing yourself.
  • It is easier for our brains to remember and use language in chunks or blocks rather than as single words.

How to learn collocations

  • Be aware of collocations, and try to recognize them when you see or hear them.
  • Treat collocations as single blocks of language. Think of them as individual blocks or chunks, and learn strongly support, not strongly + support.
  • When you learn a new word, write down other words that collocate with it (remember rightly, remember distinctly, remember vaguely, remember vividly).
  • Read as much as possible. Reading is an excellent way to learn vocabulary and collocations in context and naturally.
  • Revise what you learn regularly. Practice using new collocations in context as soon as possible after learning them.
  • Learn collocations in groups that work for you. You could learn them by topic (time, number, weather, money, family) or by a particular word (take action, take a chance, take an exam).
  • You can find information on collocations in any good learner's dictionary. And you can also find specialized dictionaries of collocations.

Types of Collocation

There are several different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun, adjective etc. Some of the most common types are:

  • Adverb + Adjective: completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied)
  • Adjective + Noun: excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy)
  • Noun + Noun: a surge of anger (NOT a rush of anger)
  • Noun + Verb: lions roar (NOT lions shout)
  • Verb + Noun: commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide)
  • Verb + Expression With Preposition: burst into tears (NOT blow up in tears)
  • Verb + Adverb: wave frantically (NOT wave feverishly)

In this lesson we look at some sample collocations:

Sample Collocations

There are several different types of collocation. Collocations can be adjective + adverb, noun + noun, verb + noun and so on. Below you can see seven main types of collocation in sample sentences.

1. adverb + adjective

  • Invading that country was an utterly stupid thing to do.
  • We entered a richly decorated room.
  • Are you fully aware of the implications of your action?

2. adjective + noun

  • The doctor ordered him to take regular exercise.
  • The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage.
  • He was writhing on the ground in excruciating pain.

3. noun + noun

  • Let's give Mr Jones a round of applause.
  • The ceasefire agreement came into effect at 11am.
  • I'd like to buy two bars of soap please.

4. noun + verb

  • The lion started to roar when it heard the dog barking.
  • Snow was falling as our plane took off.
  • The bomb went off when he started the car engine.

5. verb + noun

  • The prisoner was hanged for committing murder.
  • I always try to do my homework in the morning, after making my bed.
  • He has been asked to give a presentation about his work.

6. verb + expression with preposition

  • We had to return home because we had run out of money.
  • At first her eyes filled with horror, and then she burst into tears.
  • Their behaviour was enough to drive anybody to crime.

7. verb + adverb

  • She placed her keys gently on the table and sat down.
  • Mary whispered softly in John's ear.
  • I vaguely remember that it was growing dark when we left.

 collocation lists

 On this page you can find a few short lists of collocations to give you more of an idea about them. Many good learner's dictionaries show collocations associated with specific words. There are also dictionaries of collocations, though these are more difficult to find

 

Some common verbs

havedomake
have a bath
have a drink
have a good time
have a haircut
have a holiday
have a problem
have a relationship
have a rest
have lunch
have sympathy

do business
do nothing
do someone a favour
do the cooking
do the housework
do the shopping
do the washing up
do your best
do your hair
do your homework

make a difference
make a mess
make a mistake
make a noise
make an effort
make furniture
make money
make progress
make room
make trouble

takebreakcatch
take a break
take a chance
take a look
take a rest
take a seat
take a taxi
take an exam
take notes
take someone's place
take someone's temperature

break a habit
break a leg
break a promise
break a record
break a window
break someone's heart
break the ice
break the law
break the news to someone
break the rules
catch a ball
catch a bus
catch a chill
catch a cold
catch a thief
catch fire
catch sight of
catch someone's attention
catch someone's eye
catch the flu
paysavekeep
pay a fine
pay attention
pay by credit card
pay cash
pay interest
pay someone a compliment
pay someone a visit
pay the bill
pay the price
pay your respects
save electricity
save energy
save money
save one's strength
save someone a seat
save someone's life
save something to a disk
save space
save time
save yourself the trouble

keep a diary
keep a promise
keep a secret
keep an appointment
keep calm
keep control
keep in touch
keep quiet
keep someone's place
keep the change
comegoget
come close
come complete with
come direct
come early
come first
come into view
come last
come late
come on time
come prepared
come right back
come second
come to a compromise
come to a decision
come to an agreement
come to an end
come to a standstill
come to terms with
come to a total of
come under attack
go abroad
go astray
go bad
go bald
go bankrupt
go blind
go crazy
go dark
go deaf
go fishing
go mad
go missing
go on foot
go online
go out of business
go overseas
go quiet
go sailing
go to war
go yellow
get a job
get a shock
get angry
get divorced
get drunk
get frightened
get home
get lost
get married
get nowhere
get permission
get pregnant
get ready
get started
get the impression
get the message
get the sack
get upset
get wet
get worried
   

Miscellaneous

TimeBusiness English Classifiers
bang on time
dead on time
early 12th century
free time
from dawn till dusk
great deal of time
late 20th century
make time for
next few days
past few weeks
right on time
run out of time
save time
spare time
spend some time
take your time
tell someone the time
time goes by
time passes
waste time
annual turnover
bear in mind
break off negotiations
cease trading
chair a meeting
close a deal
close a meeting
come to the point
dismiss an offer
draw a conclusion
draw your attention to
launch a new product
lay off staff
go bankrupt
go into partnership
make a loss
make a profit
market forces
sales figures
take on staff

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