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Life Talk!

Why is muharram celebrated??

Jinn_daniels

India

Can ne 1 tell me why muharram is celebrated??

10:54 AM Jan 08 2009 |

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zeus2006

zeus2006Super Member!

Turkey

Day of Ashura
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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2007)
For other uses, see Day of Ashura (disambiguation).
Day of Ashura
Shi’a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the mourning
Official name Arabic: عاشوراء (ʻĀshūrā’)
Also called Hosay, Tabuik, Tabot
Observed by Shi’a Muslims, Sunni Muslims, Carribbeans
Type Islamic and national (In some countries such as Iran and Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica )
Significance Shi’a Muslims: marks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali; In addition Sunni: Liberation of Moses and Israelites from Pharaoh
Date 10 Muharram
2008 date January 18/January 19
2009 date January 7 and December 26/December 271
2010 date December 16
Observances Mourn and derive messages from Husayn’s Sacrifice; In addition Sunni: Prayer, Fasting
Related to Remembrance of Muharram, which encompasses the first ten days of Muharram and Ashura
A series of articles on
Imam of Islam
Husayn
----------------
Life
Family tree · Battle of Karbala
----------------
Remembrance
Maqtal Al-Husayn · Mourning of Muharram · Day of Ashura · Arba’een · Imam Husayn Shrine · Hussainia · Majlis-e-Aza · Marsia · Noha · Soaz · Ta’zieh · Tabuik · Hosay
----------------
Perspectives
The Twelve Imams · The Fourteen Infallibles
v • d • e
The Day of Ashura (عاشوراء (transliteration: ʻĀshūrā’, Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.
It is commemorated by the Shi‘a as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (October 10, 680 AD2). Sunni Muslims believe that Moses fasted on that day to express gratitude to God for liberation of Israelites from Egypt. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Muhammad fasted on this day and asked other people to fast.[3][4]
In some countries and regions such as Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Lebanon, Bahrain, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a national holiday and most ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
Contents [hide]
1 Etymology of Ashura
2 Significance of Ashura for Sunni muslims
3 Commemoration of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali
3.1 History of the commemoration
3.2 Significance of Ashura for Shi’a Muslims
3.3 Popular customs
3.4 Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali by non-Muslims
3.5 Socio-political aspects
4 Violence during Ashura
5 Ashura in the Gregorian calendar
6 See also
7 Footnotes
8 References
9 External links
[edit] Etymology of Ashura
The word ashura means simply tenth in Arabic language; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means “the tenth day”. The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that the Islamic scholars have a difference of opinion as to why this day is known as Ashura. The general consensus is that the day is the tenth day of the month of Muharram. Some scholars, however, suggest that this day is the tenth most important day that God has blessed Muslims with; hence the name Ashura. How ever the real aspect in the Islamic perspective is that when Mohammed found the Jews and Christians fasting that day in rememberence of the God saved Moses from the sea and he said to Firaun “We, the Muslims, have more right in the day to fast than any other,” and ordered his followers to fast the same day. Later one of his companions asked whether there should be a difference in the way from Christians and Jews, he orderd them to fast the 9th day of Muharram also starting the next year. But he was not alive to fast the following year.
/> A companion of the prophet, Ibn Abas reports that the prophet went to Medina and found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muharram. Muhammad inquired of them, “What is the significance of this day on which you fast?” They replied, “This is a righteous day. On this day God saved the Israelites from their enemy. Therefore Moses fasted on this day.” Muhammad said, “I am more worthy of Moses than you.” (taken from Muslim) [7]
From then, Muhammad fasted on the tenth of Muharram.[citation needed]
The Shariah law however, shuns acts that resemble Jews and Christians. Thus it is reported in Mishkaat that Muhammad said, “Fast on the day of Ashura and oppose the Jews regarding it. Thus fast on the day before it and on the day after.” (Taken from The Significance of Muharram by Rafique Valli, lecturer at the Islamic University for Girls, Johannesburg)
All Sunni Muslims believe that the fast on Ashura is optional.
The Ashura is commemorated for the following occasions which may have happened on the 10th Day of the Muharram:
God had mercy on Adam8[unreliable source?]
The deliverance of Noah from the flood[citation needed]
Abraham was saved from Nimrod’s fire[citation needed]
Jacob’s blindness was healed after Joseph’s shirt was brought to him on this day (Quran)[citation needed]
Job was healed from his illness[citation needed]
The Israelites were saved from Pharaoh’s army.[citation needed]
Jesus was brought up to heaven after attempts by the Romans to capture and crucify him failed.[citation needed]
All the above incidents are not confirmed to have taken place on Ashura in the Koran, nor by any strong Hadith. These have been reported in the weaker Hadith, but are nevertheless regarded possible by majority of the Sunni Muslims. The most authentic is the 5th incident where God saved Moses and the Israelites from Pharaoh. This is the reason why many muslims fast on the 10th of Muharram.[citation needed]
Today, Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast.[9]
Oddly, Sunnis in Egypt customarily eat a pudding (also known as Ashura) after dinner on the Day of Ashura; it is a rice pudding with nuts, raisins, and rose water, and it is also known in Turkish as Aşure. Given that Egypt was ruled by the Shi’ite Fatimid Caliphate and subsequently conquered by the Sunni Ayyubid dynasty, it may be that the (bitter) fast of Ashura was turned on its head after the Fatimid regime was toppled.
[edit] Commemoration of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali
Mourning of Muharram
Events
Battle of Karbala
Figures
Imam Husayn
Ali Akbar ibn Husayn
Ali Asghar ibn Husayn
al-Abbas ibn Ali
Zaynab bint Ali
Sukayna bint Husayn
Muslim ibn Aqeel
Places
Imam Husayn Shrine
Hussainia
Times
Day of Ashura
Arba’een
Customs
Majlis-e-Aza
Marsia
Noha
Soaz
Ta’zieh
Tabuik
Hosay
Main article: Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
/> Husayn in his path toward Kufa encountered the army of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa. On October 10 680(Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and his small group of companions and family members, who were between 108 and 136 men of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of Muhammad).[13][14] fought with a large army of perhaps more than 4,000 men under the command of Umar ibn Sa’ad, son of the founder of Kufa. Husayn and all of his men were killed. The bodies of the dead, including that of Husayn, were then mutilated.[2]
Commemoration for Husayn ibn Ali began after Battle of Karbala. After the massacre, the Umayyad army looted Husayn’s camp and set off with his women and children for the court of Ibn Ziyad. A moving oration delivered by Zaynab in Kufa is recorded in some sources. The prisoners were next sent to the court of Yazid, Umayyad caliph, in Damascus, where one of his Syrian followers asked for Husayn’s daughter Faṭimah al-Kubra, and once again it was Zaynab who came to the rescue and protected her honour. The family remained in Yazid’s prison for a time. The first assembly (majlis) of Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration.[15]
“Zaynab bint Ali quoted as she passed the prostrate body of her brother, Husayn. ” O Muhammad! O Muhammad! May the angels of heaven bless you. Here is Husayn in the open, stained with blood and with limbs torn off. O Muhammad! Your daughters are prisoners, your progeny are killed, and the east wind blows dust over them.” By God! She made every enemy and friend weep.”
Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid.[16]
Just few years after Husayn’s death his grave became a pilgrimage site among Shi’a. A tradition of pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs quickly developed, which is renown as Ziarat Ashura.[17] The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites.[18] The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850-851 and Shi’a pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najaf were built by the Buwayhid emir ‘Adud al-Daula in 979-80.[19]
It did not take long for public rites of remembrance for Husayn’s martyrdom to develop from the early pilgrimages. Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu’izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad. These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid caliph al-’Aziz. From Seljuq times, Ashura rituals began to attract many participants from a variety of backgrounds, including Sunnis. With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.[17]
[edit] Significance of Ashura for Shi’a Muslims
Shi’a devotees congregate outside the Sydney Opera House, Australia to commemorate Imam Hussein.This day is of particular significance to Shi’a Muslims, who consider Hussein (the grandson of the Prophet) Ahl al-Bayt the third Imam and the rightful successor of Muhammad. Many Shi’as make pilgrimages on Ashura to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq that is traditionally held to be Imam Hussein’s tomb. On this day Shi’a are in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from music, since customarily in Islam when death has occurred music is considered impolite. It is a time for sorrow and respect of the person’s passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection, when one commits oneself to the mourning of the Imam Hussein completely. Weddings and parties are also never planned on this date by Shi’as. Shi’as also express mourning by crying and listening to poems about the tragedy and sermons on how Hussein and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Hussein’s suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Hussein’s martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shi’a as a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression.[20]
Shi’a Muslims in Malir, Pakistan starting the procession of the Mätam.Shi’as believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil. Imam Hussain represented good while Yazid represented evil. Shi’as also believe the Battle of Karbala was fought to keep the Muslim religion untainted of any corruptions and they believed the path that Yazid was directing Islam was definitely for his own personal greed.[citation needed]
Shia Imams strongly insists that the day of Ashura should not be taken as a day of jos and festivity. According to a hadith which is reported from Ali some people fabricated a hadith claiming it was on that day the God forgave Adam, Noah arc rested on dry land, The Israelites were saved from Pharaoh’s army, etc. The day of Ashura, according to eight Shia Imam, Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of inactivity, sorrow and total disregard of worldly cares. [21]
Shia refrain from drinking and eating in commemoration of Imam Hussein. This is known as Fakah, which is not a formal fast.[citation needed]
Many of the events associated with Ashura are held in special congregation halls known as “Imambargah” and Hussainia.[citation needed]
As suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains (matam) have been prohibited by many Shi’a marjas like Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran,[22] some Shi’a observe mourning with blood donation which is called “Qame Zani”[22] and flailing23.
Certain rituals like the traditional flagellation ritual called zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam, involving the use of a zanjeer (a chain) are also performed24. These are not religious customs but are popularly done for the sake of Imam Hussain and his family.
At least many Shia believe that taking part in Ashura is to be absolved of sin. A popular Shia saying has it that, `a single tear shed for Hussain washes away a hundred sins.`[25]
[edit] Popular customs
A pilgrimage to Karbala for the celebration of Arba’een, 28 March, 2005.For Shi’as, commemoration of Ashura is not a festival, but rather a sad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God (Allah) has given to his prophet, Musa. This victory is the very reason, as Sunni Muslims believe, Muhammad mentioned when recommending fasting on this day. For Shi’as, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners, congregate at a Mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Hussein, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of “Ya Hussain.” Also Ulamas give sermons with themes of Hussein’s personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow the listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Hussein and his family. In Arab countries like Iraq and Lebanon they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Ta’zieh, passion plays, are also performed reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Hussein at the hands of Yazid.[citation needed]
Tabuiks being lowered in to the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (Niazz) on certain nights of the month to all people. Many people donate food and Middle Eastern sweets to the mosque. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with God, Hussain, and humanity.[citation needed]
Many participants congregate together in public processions for ceremonial chest beating (matham/latmiya) as a display of their devotion to Husayn, in remembrance of his suffering and to preach that oppression will not last in the face of truth and justice26. Others pay tribute to the time period by holding a Majilis, Surahs from the Quran and Maqtal Al-Husayn are read.[citation needed]
Today in Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut/Tabot (Indonesian). Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Shi’a Muslim Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, particularly in the city of Pariaman. The festival includes reenactments of the Battle of Karbala, and the playing of tassa and dhol drums.[citation needed]
In countries like Turkey, there is the custom of eating Noah’s Pudding Ashure as this day in Turkish is known as Aşure.
[edit] Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali by non-Muslims
A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950sIn some countries other religious communities commemorate this event. In Iran, some Zoroastrians participate in mourning.[27]
In Trinidad and Tobago28 and Jamaica29 all ethnic and religious communities participate in this event, locally known as “Hosay” or “Hussay”, from “Husayn”.[citation needed]
needed] According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran , the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli occupation and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the `Ashura’ celebrations associate the memory of Al-Husayn’s martyrdom with the miserable conditions of Muslims in other non-Islamic third-world nations, on the pretense that every nation and era has their own Husayn.[30]
From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905-11) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam Hosayn’s enemies, the umayyads.[31]
The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam Hosayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq are buried.[31]
On the other hand some governments have banned this commemoration. In 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay Massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities.[citation needed]
[edit] Violence during Ashura
The Sunni and Shi’a schism is highlighted by the difference in observance by Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. The violence is perpetrated by Sunni and Shia extremists. In countries that have significant populations of both sects, there is often violence during the holiday.
On June 20, 1994 the explosion of a bomb in a prayer hall of Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad32 killed at least 25 people.[33] The Iranian government officially blamed Mujahedin-e-Khalq for the incident to avoid sectarian conflict between Shias and Sunnis.[34] However, the Pakistani daily The News International reported on March 27, 1995, “Pakistani investigators have identified a 24-year-old religious fanatic Abdul Shakoor residing in Lyari in Karachi, as an important Pakistani associate of Ramzi Yousef. Abdul Shakoor had intimate contacts with Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and was responsible for the June 20, 1994, massive bomb explosion at the shrine Imam Ali Reza in Mashhad.”[35]
The 2004 (1425 AH) Shi’a pilgrimage to Karbala, the first since Saddam Hussein was removed from power in Iraq, was marred by bomb attacks, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security.
On January 19, 2008, 7 million Iraqi Shia pilgrims marched through Karbala city, Iraq to commemorate Ashura. 20,000 Iraqi troops and police guarded the event amid tensions due to clashes between Iraqi troops and members of a Shia cult, the Soldiers of Heaven, which left around 263 people dead (in Basra and Nasiriya).[36] Dawoodi Bohra a Sect of Shia Claim the successor of Imam Husayn is Imam Taiyab is underground authorized his Assistant Dai -Syedna Dr. Mohammad Burhanuddin to Lead the Islam – which lead to violence in Mumbai between Bohra and Sunni muslims
[edit] Ashura in the Gregorian calendar
Main article: Islamic calendar
While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the method used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country.
2009: January 7 and December 27
2010: December 16
Future dates listed above are only estimates.

02:07 PM Jan 08 2009 |

saeed16

saeed16

Iran, Islamic Republic Of

THE TRAGEDY OF KARBALA AND THE MARTYRDOM OF IMAM HUSSAIN’S (P.B.U.H)


November 24, 2012





 


 




 


Hi, How are you Dear friends?


I am so sad & crying these days like all other Iranians for


 THE TRAGEDY OF KARBALA AND THE MARTYRDOM OF IMAM HUSSAIN’S (P.B.U.H)


the same hussain whose grandfather was ,the holy prophet MOHAMMAD


whose father was IMAM ALI (p b u h)


whose mother was HAZRAT E  ZAHRA (p b u h) (Daughter of the prophet )



The earth and the sky trembled  at this heart rendering scene,


The greatest chapter in the history of Islam,


the greatest sacrifice,


By the,


greatest grandson of Islam.


*


I put here a short biography of him & many URLs to read if you like:


Husayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Arabic: حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب‎)‎ (3rd Sha‘bān 4 AH – 10th Muharram 61 AH; 8 January 626 AD – 10 October 680 AD) was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (final Rashidun Caliph[6] and first Shī‘a Fātimah Zahrā (daughter of Muhammad). Husayn is an important figure in Islām as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisā, as well as being a Shī‘a Imām, and one of The Fourteen Infallibles of Shī’a Twelvers. In 680 CE, the Prophet Muhammad’s grandson flatly refused to give allegiance to the oppressive Umayyad caliph, Yazid. He was killed along with 72 of his loyal companions in the tragic massacre at Karbala.


1.http://www.tebyan.net/Events_History/Islamic_Events/2008/12/28/81899.html


2.http://www.al-islam.org/kaaba14/6.htm


3.http://www.ihic.org.au/index.php


4.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Husayn_ibn_Ali


5.http://www.tvchannelsfree.com/watch/6406/Imam-Hussain.html


 


((THIS IS AN ADVERTISING, SO PLEASE, DON’T TRY DISCUSS IT))


regards

05:11 PM Nov 24 2012 |